Internal Modes and Radiation Damping for 3d Klein-Gordon equations

December 8, 2021
We consider quadratic Klein-Gordon equations with an external potential $V$ in $3+1$ space-time dimensions. We assume that $V$ is generic and decaying, and that the operator $-\Delta + V + m^2$ has an eigenvalue $\lambda^2 < m^2$. This is a so-called ‘internal mode’ and gives rise to time-periodic localized solutions of the linear flow. We address the question of whether such solutions persist under the full nonlinear flow. Our main result shows that small nonlinear solutions slowly decay as the energy is transferred from the internal mode to the continuous spectrum, provided a natural Fermi golden rule holds. Moreover, we obtain very precise asymptotic information including sharp rates of decay and the growth of weighted norms. These results extend the seminal work of Soffer-Weinstein for cubic nonlinearities to the case of any generic perturbation. This is joint work with Tristan Léger (Princeton University).